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  • 如何攻克考研英语长难句?

    2021.01.29 来源:Scarlett 浏览次数:188
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    在考研英语里,阅读题占了很大的分值比例,文章中的长难句常被用作命题点。有些考生因为看不懂长难句而遗憾丢分。长难句真的有那么难吗?可以怎样攻克长难句呢?

    其实,考生要了解清楚考研英语长难句是怎样构成的、有哪些类型,才会更清楚那些看起来很复杂的句子到底是怎么回事,才更能轻松看懂长难句。

    考研英语长难句主要分为以下三种类型:

    1、修饰成分复杂

    句子本不难,但是修饰成分多且长。从句(定语、状语、同位语从句等)修饰;介词短语修饰;不定式修饰。经常是在同一个句子里既有从句又有介词短语,而且还不止一个。

    对于此类长难句,一定要注意抓住句子主干,先把主干给梳理清楚了,在此基础上再进行添枝加叶,这样才能知道这句话在说什么。

    e.g.

    As a discovery claim works its way through the community, the interaction and confrontation between shared and competing beliefs about the science and the technology involved transforms an individual's discovery claim into the community's credible discovery.

    【句子分析】主语是the interaction and confrontation,谓语是transforms... into...,伴随状语是As a discovery claim works its way through the community,定语是between shared and competing beliefs about the science and the technology involved,修饰主语the interaction and confrontation。即:

    (As a discovery claim works its way through the community), the interaction and confrontation [between shared and competing beliefs about the science and the technology involved] transformsan individual's discovery claim into the community's credible discovery.

    【参考译文】随着发现声明通过科学界起作用,科学和技术涉及到的共有的互动和冲突把个人的发现声明转化为科学界可信的发现。

    2、大段的插入与或同位语

    插入语很长的句子,看起来很难,其实并不难理解。在阅读时,要先把句子主干找出来、不用理会插入语,要先从整体上去理解,之后再把插入语填充进去理解即可。

    e.g.

    The Internet — and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government-funded research by restricting access to it — is making access to scientific results a reality.

    【句子分析】这个句子里面出现了两个破折号,它们中间的内容and pressure... by restricting access to it就是插入语,在理解句子时可以先忽略这些内容。这样就很容易找出句子主干,也就是The Internet is making access to scientific results a reality。之后,再把插入语填充进去就可以完全看懂整个句子了。即:

    The Internet — and pressure from funding agencies, who are questioning why commercial publishers are making money from government-funded research by restricting access to it —is making access to scientific results a reality.

    【参考译文】网络和一些赞助机构正在施压,他们质疑为什么商业出版商通过限制人们的使用来从政府资助的科学研究中获利,这使得科研果的拥有权(不被盗用)变为现实。

    3、语序调整或倒装

    英语中的倒装,主要分为两种:

    (1)语法要求必须要倒装。如:

    以here, there, then, now, next引出的倒装句;

    以表地点的介词短语引出的倒装句;

    以表示方位的副词引出的倒装句;

    否定词或具有否定意义的词及词组用在句首;

    only置于句首;

    as/though引导让步状语从句;

    在虚拟条件句中,连词if省略时,即将were, had, should等词移至句首。

    (2)人为的倒装

    为了平衡句子的结构或强调一些内容,会对句子进行句序调整。这样就加大了理解难度,同学们在做题时要注意按照正确的顺序进行翻译。

    e.g.

    Odd though it sounds, cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics, and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true.

    【句子分析】Odd though it sounds是倒装句,是作者为了强调"奇怪"这个现象,特意把odd移到前面,构成了表语结构的提前。在翻译时要按照正常的顺序进行调整。即:

    (Odd though it sounds), cosmic inflation is a [scientifically plausible] consequence [of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics],and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decadethat it is true.

    【参考译文】尽管它听起来很奇怪,宇宙膨胀说是在基础粒子物理学中的一些公认的观点在科学上貌似可信的推论,并且很多天体物理学家在近十年中已经相信这种理论是真实的。